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真题模板·HCS 2017-08-11  文章作者:未知

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Highlight correct summary – Item 1

Transcript:
  So what influences consumers in different parts of the world? Many factors affect how we, as individuals and societies, live, buy and consume. And it should be readily apparent that culture has a profound impact on the way consumers perceive themselves, the products they buy and consume, and the processes by which those products should be purchased, and the organization that sells those products.
 
Answers:

Correct: Consumers in different cultures value different things. These values, which can be unique from one culture to the next, impact not only what kinds of products these consumers buy, but also who they buy them from, how they buy them, and for what uses and reasons.
Explanation: This response is correct. The speaker says “culture has a profound impact on the products they buy and consume” which implies that culture influences consumer decisions, leading people from one culture to make different purchases from those in another culture. According to the speaker, culture also affects “the processes by which those products should be purchased, and the organization that sells those products”, which addresses “how they buy them” and “who they buy them from.”

Incorrect 1: Culture throughout the world plays a mutually beneficial role in the consumer markets of a society. Through culture, consumers are able to identify the products most important to them, and at the same time, culture is able to adapt to what buyers and sellers desire at any given moment.
Explanation: This response is incorrect because the speaker indicates that culture affects what products people buy. The speaker does not state or imply that organizations that sell products have an effect on culture.
 
Incorrect 2: Throughout the many cultures found in the world, consumers have behaved predictably.While each society may have different values, the level of consumption as compared to other cultures is relatively equal. Globalization ensures that consumers adopt the same process when buying goods and services.
Explanation: This response is incorrect because the speaker directly contradicts this summary as she says that culture affects the processes by which consumers purchase products, implying that culture informs values and thereby influences purchasing. There is no discussion of the predictability of consumer behavior or the level of consumption.
 
Incorrect 3: The way a consumer buys, uses, and values a product is independent of cultural influence.A consumer may purchase desired products and still practice the beliefs and customs of their culture. Even the organizations responsible for bringing various products to consumers operate without regard to cultural sensitivities.
Explanation: This response is incorrect because the speaker indicates that culture “has a profound
impact” on which products consumers buy and use, how they buy them, and which organizations they
buy them from.
 


Highlight correct summary – Item 2


Transcript
  We’re not running out of oil. The first thing that one can say with absolute confidence is that we’re not about to run out of oil, we are definitely not. But what we are approaching is the end of the first half, and this is one way to describe it, and this chapter in history lasted about a hundred and fifty years since the first oil was produced. And we’re coming to the end of that, and you have to find oil before you can produce it, and when we look back into history, we can find that the peak of discovery was in 1964, and that the discovery of oil has been falling ever since, relentlessly, um, and it’s been falling despite the world wide search, always aimed at the biggest and best prospects, no one’s looking for the smallest and the worst, the biggest and the best. It’s been falling despite amazing technological and geological advances, we understand this business so much more than we did. And finally, it’s been falling despite a very happy economic environment, whereby most of the cost of exploration is written off against tax. So I would say in view of all of those incentives, and all of those benefits, if discovery has actually been falling relentlessly, er, there is no good reason to think that this trend is going to change direction. So, in other words, we’ve passed the peak.
 
Answers

Correct: While we are not about to run out of oil, we are certainly past the peak of oil production, which occurred about 40 years ago. This is despite improvements in technology, geology, and with tax-subsidized investment in exploration.
Explanation: This response is correct. The speaker asserts, “We’re not running out of oil” at the beginning of the recording. The speaker then says that the peak of oil discovery was in 1964, and that the rate of oil discovery “has been falling ever since” despite “amazing technological and geological advances.” He also mentions that “most of the cost of exploration is written off against tax.”

Incorrect 1: Unless major oil consumers invest in exploration now (which would be the first time major funds have been invested since 1964) global oil production will level out and be unable to meet increased demands from India and China.
Explanation: This response is incorrect. The speaker says “the peak of (oil) discovery was in 1964” and “the discovery of oil has been falling … despite the world wide search” and all of the advances and tax incentives. The speaker does not mention either India or China and says nothing about increased demand.
 
Incorrect 2: With the continuation of improvements in technology, geology, and with government support, there is little doubt that further major reserves of oil will be found in the near future. This should result in sustainable oil supplies for a further 150 years.
Explanation: This response is incorrect. The speaker says “oil discovery has been falling … despite amazing technological and geological advances,” and “there is no good reason to think that this trend is going to change direction.”
 
Incorrect 3: Oil consumption reached its first peak in 1964. Since that time the world has become
increasingly dependent on oil. It is unlikely that there will be any new major oil discoveries in the
immediate future or at any subsequent time.
Explanation: This response is incorrect because the speaker does not discuss the world’s dependence
on oil.

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